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Atheism, as defined by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and other philosophy reference works, is the denial of the existence of God.[1][2][3]

The atheistic worldview has a variety of effects on individuals and society at large which will be elaborated on shortly. Concerning individuals adopting an atheistic worldview, atheism has a number of causal factors that influence its origination in individuals which will be addressed. In addition, critiques of atheism will be offered and some of the historical events relating to atheism will also be covered. For example, since World War II a majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the theory of evolution which employs methodological naturalism have been atheists.[4]

Types of atheismEditar

There are different types of atheism, based on different answers to the following questions:

  • What God or gods does the atheist deny?
  • Why does the atheist deny?
  • How does the atheist's denial manifest itself?

Atheism and Which God or gods? Editar

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Since atheism is denial of the existence of God or gods, it is important first to identify in which God and/or gods the atheist denies. In ancient times, for example, Christians were accused of being atheists because of their denial of the pagan gods, even though they believed in the Christian God.[5] Socrates was also accused of atheism, although references to God run throughout his recorded statements.[6] Also, Albert Einstein and Baruch Spinoza professed belief in "God," but they defined "God" as the cosmos as a whole, and without personality.

Atheism and why do atheists state they disbelieve?Editar

Atheists claim there are two main reasons for their denial of the existence of God and/or disbelief in God: the conviction that there is positive evidence or argument that God does not exist (Strong atheism which is also sometimes called positive atheism), and their claim that theists bear the burden of proof to show that God exists, that they have failed to do so, and that belief is therefore unwarranted (Weak atheism).

Manifestations of atheismEditar

Below are three common ways that atheism manifests itself:

  • Militant atheism which continues to suppress and oppress religious believers today (see also: Atheism and communism).
  • Philosophical atheism - Atheist philosophers assert that God does not exist.
  • Practical atheism: atheism of the life - that is, living as though God does not exist.[7]

Attempts to dilute the definition of atheism Editar

See also: Attempts to dilute the definition of atheism and Definition of atheism and Definitions of Atheist and Agnostic

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Charles Bradlaugh, in 1876, proposed that atheism does not assert "there is no God," and by doing so he diluted the traditional definition of atheism. Since 1979, many atheists have followed Bradlaugh's thinking further and stated that atheism is merely a lack of belief in any god.[8] [9] The motive for such a shift in meaning appears to be to an attempt to shift the burden of proof regarding the existence of God to the theism side.[10]

In the article, Is Atheism Presumptuous?, atheist Jeffery Jay Lowder, a founder of Internet Infidels which owns and operates the Secular Web (the Secular Web is a website focused on promoting atheism, agnosticism and skepticism on the internet), states that "I agree (with Copan) that anyone who claims, "God does not exist," must shoulder a burden of proof just as much as anyone who claims, "God exists."[11] In short, the attempt to redefine atheism is merely an attempt to make no assertions so no facts need be offered.[12] The attempt to redefine atheism, however, is not in accordance with the standard definitions of atheism that encyclopedias of philosophy employ which is that atheism is a denial of the existence of God or gods.[13][2][14]

Atheism often relies on asserting fragile assumptions that are contrary to the existing evidence (see also: Evidence for Christianity ).[15] In addition, atheists/skeptics do have a tradition of making assumptions that later have proved errant.[16] Also, prominent atheists, such as Charles Darwin (see: religious views of Charles Darwin ), have experienced doubts concerning the validity of atheism.

Atheism is a religion Editar

Many of the leaders of the atheist movement, such as the evolutionist and weak atheist/agnostic Richard Dawkins, argue for agnosticism/atheism with a religious fervor.

Roderick Ninian Smart, a Scottish writer and professor, defined a seven-part scheme of understanding both religious and secular worldviews[17]. These can be understood as narrative, experiential, social, ethical, doctrinal, ritual and material.

English Pastor Daniel Smartt defines atheism as a religion, using Ninian Smart's seven dimensions of worldview as a list of criteria. It is not necessary in Smartt's model for every one of these to be present in order for something to be a religion.[18]. However, it can be argued that all seven are present in the case of atheism.[19][20]

Please see: Atheism: A religionand Atheism and Atheism is a religion.

Atheism is a religion and its legal implications relative to the teaching of evolution Editar

Atheism is a religion and naturalistic notions of origins are religious which has legal implications relative to evolution being taught in public schools.[21][22][23]

John Calvert, a lawyer and intelligent design proponent declared: Plantilla:Cquote

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Biblical Christianity vs. evangelical atheism Editar

A proponent of the anti-evolution Question evolution! campaign by Creation Ministries International wrote: Plantilla:Cquote

See also:

Biblical statements concerning atheism Editar

see also: Resources for leaving atheism and becoming a Christian

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The writers of the Bible considered the existence of God to be self-evident and Moses simply wrote: "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth." (Genesis 1:1).[25]

Accordingly, the psalmist David declared:

"The fool has said in his heart, 'There is no God.' They are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none that doeth good." - Psalms 14:1 (KJV)

The psalmist David also wrote "The heavens declare the glory of God..." - Psalms 19:1

In his letter to the Romans the Apostle Paul declared:

"For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness, because what may be known of God is manifest in them, for God has shown it to them. For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse. For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse..." - Romans 1:19-20 (NKJV)

Tenuousness of atheism in prominent atheists and in large populations Editar

See also: Atheists doubting the validity of atheism and Denials that atheists exist

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Notable professing atheists have had the characteristic of variability and instability when it came to maintaining thoughts in accordance with atheism. For example, Jean-Paul Sartre was one of the leading proponents of atheism of the 20th Century. Yet Jean-Paul Sartre made this candid confession: Plantilla:Cquote

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Charles Darwin wrote in his private notebooks that he was a materialist, which is a type of atheist. (see: religious views of Charles Darwin) [26][27]

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy states: Plantilla:Cquote

Research on the weakness of individuals' attachment to atheism through secularistic upbringing Editar

See also: Weakness of secularistic upbringing

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In 2012, a Georgetown University study was published indicating that only about 30 percent of those who grow up in an atheist household remain atheists as adults.[29] Similarly, according to recent research by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, in the United States, a majority of those surveyed who were raised in atheist or agnostic households, or where there was no specific religious attachment, later chose to join a religious faith.[30][31] A notable example of a person raised in a atheistic household who later became a Christian is William J. Murray. Mr. Murray is the son of the late atheist Madalyn Murray O'Hair who founded the organization American Atheists. In 1982, William J. Murray founded the Religious Freedom Coalition.

An article published by a Question evolution! campaign group entitled Georgetown University study provides two clues to shrinking atheism faster declares: Plantilla:Cquote

In addition, as noted earlier, in atheistic Communist China, Christianity is experiencing explosive growth.[32][33] On July 3, 2005, the New York Times reported concerning many countries in the former Soviet Union: "A return to religion in Romania and the region's other formerly Communist countries has in many places outrun the speed at which the church can screen and train clergy..."[34]

Atheism losing adherents in terms of the global population Editar

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See also: Global atheism and American atheism and Atheist Population and Resources for leaving atheism and becoming a Christian

In 2012, Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary reported that globally every day there are 800 less atheists per day, 1,100 less non-religious (agnostic) people per day and 83,000 more people professing to be Christians per day.[36][37]

In 2011, the American Spectator citing research published in the International Bulletin of Missionary Research reported that atheism is on the decline as a whole in terms of adherents .[38][39]

The American Spectator declared: Plantilla:Cquote

In 2009, the book A sceptics guide to atheism indicated: "A worldwide poll taken in 1991 put the global figure for atheists at just 4.4% of the population. By 2006 it was estimated that only 2% of the world population were atheists."[40]

In 2012 an article entitled Atheism in decline by Nigel Tomes declared: Plantilla:Cquote

Decline of atheism in terms of global adherents is expected to accelerate Editar

See also: Global atheism and American atheism and Atheist Population and Resources for leaving atheism and becoming a Christian

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Eric Kaufmann, a professor at Birkbeck, University of London, using a a wealth of demographic studies argues the decline of atheism in terms of its global adherents is an established trend that will persist for the foreseeable future and the rate of decline will accelerate.[43][44][45][46] In addition, Kaufmann argues that religious conservatism has a long term trend of rising and that their influence in the world will significantly increase.[47] Kaufmann is author of the book Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?.[48][49] In the Western World due to immigration and the higher birth rates of religious people, Kaufman writes: "Committed religious populations are growing in the West, and will reverse the march of secularism before 2050."[50]

Michael Blume, a researcher at the University of Jena in Germany, wrote "Most societies or communities that have espoused atheistic beliefs have not survived more than a century."[51] Blume also indicated concerning concerning his research on this matter: "What I found was the complete lack of a single case of a secular population, community or movement that would just manage to retain replacement level."[52]

In addition, currently the Western World population is aging in terms of its demographic makeup, particularly in secular Europe, and it has been found that belief in God grows as a person's death nears.[53][54]

For more information please see the article: Atheist population

Decline of American 1990s secularism Editar

For more information please see:

Prominent atheism websites loss of global market share Editar

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See also: Internet atheism and Atheistic bullying and Internet atheism and polyamory

During the period of 2008 to 2012, the atheist community made a concerted effort to spread atheism through means of the internet. However, leading atheist websites have seen plunges in web traffic during this same period and during the first half of 2012.[55]

In May of 2012, it was pointed out by supporters of Creation Ministries International's Question evolution! campaign that from a global internet perspective the public's interest in the views of the agnostic/weak atheist Richard Dawkins and the atheist PZ Myers and in atheism are on the decline while interest in Jesus and Christianity are on the upswing.[56]

For more information please see:

Question evolution! campaign Editar

See also: Question evolution! campaign and Atheist Population

As noted above, since World War II a majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the theory of evolution which employs methodological naturalism have been atheists.[57] In 2011, a campaign called the Question evolution! campaign was launched by the biblical creation organization Creation Ministries International which is a worldwide "grass-roots movement to challenge the anti-Christian dogma of evolution".[58]

The focus of the Question evolution! campaign is on 15 questions that evolutionists cannot satisfactorily answer. The campaign will be primarily conducted in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore and South Africa.[59]

Atheist infighting and factions Editar

See also: Atheist factions

Another factor contributing to the decline of global atheism is the lack of unity and the significant amount of infighting in the atheist community.

Jacques Rousseau wrote in the Daily Maverick: "Elevatorgate..has resulted in three weeks of infighting in the secular community. Some might observe that we indulge in these squabbles fairly frequently."[60] An ex-atheist wrote: "As an Atheist for 40 years, I noticed that there is not just a wide variety of Atheist positions, but there exists an actual battle between certain Atheist factions."[61]

For more information please see: Atheist factions

Lack of sound leadership Editar

See also: Atheism and leadership

Using academic studies, survey data and other information, supporters of the Question evolution! campaign maintain that there is a lack of sound leadership within the agnostic/atheist and evolutionist communities in dealing with the global decline of atheism and agnosticism.

See:

Claims of the conditionality and nonconditionality of atheism Editar

See also: There are no atheists in foxholes and Denials that atheists exist

Henry More wrote the following: "In agony or danger, no nature is atheist. The mind that knows not what to fly to, flies to God."[62] Reverend William T. Cummings is famous for declaring "There are no atheists in foxholes."[63] Chaplain F.W. Lawson of the 302d Machine Gun Battalion, who was wounded twice in wartime, stated "I doubt if there is such a thing as an atheist. At least there isn't in a front line trench."[64] On the other hand, the news organization MSNBC featured a story in which atheist veterans claimed that there are atheists in foxholes.[65]

Atheism and communism Editar

see also: Atheism and communism and Militant atheism and Atheism and mass murder and Soviet Union and morality and Atheism and slavery

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Karl Marx said "[Religion] is the opium of the people". Marx also stated: "Communism begins from the outset (Owen) with atheism; but atheism is at first far from being communism; indeed, that atheism is still mostly an abstraction."[66]

Vladimir Lenin similarly wrote regarding atheism and communism: "A Marxist must be a materialist, i. e., an enemy of religion, but a dialectical materialist, i. e., one who treats the struggle against religion not in an abstract way, not on the basis of remote, purely theoretical, never varying preaching, but in a concrete way, on the basis of the class struggle which is going on in practice and is educating the masses more and better than anything else could."[67]

The atheism in communist regimes has been and continues to be militant atheism and various acts of repression including the razing of thousands of religious buildings and the killing, imprisoning, and oppression of religious leaders and believers.[68]

The persecution of Christians in the Soviet Union was the result of the violently atheist Soviet government. In the first five years after the October Revolution, 28 bishops and 1,200 priests were murdered, many on the orders of Leon Trotsky. When Joseph Stalin came to power in 1927, he ordered his secret police, under Genrikh Yagoda to intensify persecution of Christians. In the next few years, 50,000 clergy were murdered, many were tortured, including crucifixion. "Russia turned red with the blood of martyrs", said Father Gleb Yakunin of the Russian Orthodox Church.[69] According to Orthodox Church sources, as many as fifty million Orthodox believers may have died in the twentieth century, mainly from persecution by Communists.[70]

In addition, in the atheistic and communist Soviet Union, 44 anti religious museums were opened and the largest was the 'The Museum of the History of Religion and Atheism' in Leningrad’s Kazan cathedral.[71] Despite intense effort by the atheistic leaders of the Soviet Union, their efforts were not effective in converting the masses to atheism.[72][73]

China is a communist country. In 1999, the publication Christian Century reported that "China has persecuted religious believers by means of harassment, prolonged detention, and incarceration in prison or `reform-through-labor' camps and police closure of places of worship." In 2003, owners of Bibles in China were sent to prison camps and 125 Chinese churches were closed.[74] China continues to practice religious oppression today.[75] According to Asian Economic News, in 2004 the atheistic and communist government of China had an internal document which directed the Chinese media to promote atheism, instructed internet media to remove user comments that advocate alternative spiritual views, and called for a ban on publications that disseminate religious material out of step with Marxism or atheism.[76] The efforts of China's atheist leaders in promoting atheism, however, is increasingly losing its effectiveness and the number of Christians in China is explosively growing.[77][78] China's state sponsored atheism and atheistic indoctrination has been a failure and a 2007 religious survey in China indicated that only 15% of Chinese identified themselves as atheists.[79]

North Korea is a repressive communist state and is officially atheistic.[80] The North Korean government practices brutal repression and atrocities against North Korean Christians.[81][82]

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It has been estimated that in less than the past 100 years, governments under the banner of communism have caused the death of somewhere between 40,472,000 to 259,432,000 human lives.[83] Dr. R. J. Rummel, professor emeritus of political science at the University of Hawaii, is the scholar who first coined the term democide (death by government). Dr. R. J. Rummel's mid estimate regarding the loss of life due to communism is that communism caused the death of approximately 110,286,000 people between 1917 and 1987.[84] Richard Dawkins has attempted to engage in historical revisionism concerning atheist atrocities and Dawkins was shown to be in gross error.

The theory of evolution played a prominent role in regards to atheistic communism.[85][86] Communists, in particular Stalinists, favored a version of Lamarckism called Lysenkoism developed by the atheist Trofim Denisovich Lysenko.[87] Lysenko was made member of the Supreme Soviet and head of the Institute of Genetics of the Soviet Academy of Sciences.[88] Later Lysenko became President of the All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences.[88] Many geneticists were imprisoned and executed for their bourgeois science, and agricultural policies based on Lysenkoism that were adopted under Stalin and Mao caused famines and the death of millions.[87]

Dr. Carl Wieland, Managing Director of Creation Ministries International, published an article entitled The blood-stained ‘century of evolution’ which declared: Plantilla:Cquote

For more information please see: Atheism and slavery

Criticism of atheismEditar

See also: Resources for leaving atheism and becoming a Christian and Christian apologetics

Commonly Cited Arguments Against Atheism and For Theism Editar

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In relation to the debate between theism and atheism, theists often criticize atheism as being contrary to persuasive argument and have a number of arguments against atheism. Arguments for the existence of God include:

Atheism and mass murderEditar

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See articles: Atheism and Mass Murder and Atheism and communism and Atheism and sadism and Atheism and slavery

Christian apologist Gregory Koukl wrote relative to atheism and mass murder that "the assertion is that religion has caused most of the killing and bloodshed in the world. There are people who make accusations and assertions that are empirically false. This is one of them."[95] Koukl details the number of people killed in various events involving theism and compares them to the much higher tens of millions of people killed under regimes which advocated atheism.[95] As noted earlier, Richard Dawkins has attempted to engage in historical revisionism concerning atheist atrocities and Dawkins was shown to be in gross error.

Koukl summarized by stating: Plantilla:Cquote

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Nobel Prize winner Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was asked to account for the great tragedies that occurred under the brutal communist regime he and fellow citizens suffered under.

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn wrote: Plantilla:Cquote

In 2008, Vox Day notes concerning atheism and mass murder: Plantilla:Cquote

See also:

Atheism and charity Editar

See also: Atheism and charity and Atheism and depression and Atheism, uncharitableness and depression
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Concerning the issue of atheism and uncharitableness, the evidence indicates that per capita charitable giving by atheists and agnostics in America is significantly less than by theists, according to a study by the Barna Group: Plantilla:Cquote

A comprehensive study by Harvard University professor Robert Putnam found that religious people are more charitable than their irreligious counterparts.[97][98] The study revealed that forty percent of worship service attending Americans volunteer regularly to help the poor and elderly as opposed to 15% of Americans who never attend services.[99][100] Moreover, religious individuals are more likely than non-religious individuals to volunteer for school and youth programs (36% vs. 15%), a neighborhood or civic group (26% vs. 13%), and for health care (21% vs. 13%).[101][102]

Arthur C. Brooks wrote in Policy Review regarding data collected in the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey (SCCBS) (data collected by in 2000 by researchers at universities throughout the United States and the Roper Center for Public Opinion Research): Plantilla:Cquote

ABC News reported the following in respect to atheism: Plantilla:Cquote

Given that atheistic evolutionary thinking has engendered social darwinism and given that the proponents of atheism have no rational basis for morality in their ideology, the immoral views that atheists often hold and the low per capita giving of American atheists is not unpredictable.

Atheism and immoral viewsEditar

See: Atheism and morality and Atheism and bestiality and Atheism and homosexuality and Atheism and sadism and Atheism and rape and Atheism and slavery and Atheism and hell

The Barna Group found regarding atheism and morality that those who hold to the worldviews of atheism or agnosticism in America were more likely, than theists in America, to look upon the following behaviors as morally acceptable: illegal drug use; excessive drinking; sexual relationships outside of marriage; abortion; cohabitating with someone of opposite sex outside of marriage; obscene language; gambling; pornography and obscene sexual behavior; and engaging in homosexuality/bisexuality.[103] Given the many diseases associated with homosexuality, the biblical prohibition against homosexuality is quite arguably one of the many examples where the Bible exhibited knowledge that was ahead of its time. Although Western atheists generally subscribe to the evolutionary paradigm, there is a conflict between the evolutionary paradigm and Western atheists often having favorable views toward homosexuality. In 1993, Professor Miron Baron, M.D., the renowned medical researcher and Professor at Columbia University, wrote in BMJ (British Medical Journal) "...from an evolutionary perspective, genetically determined homosexuality would have become extinct long ago because of reduced reproduction."[104] For more information please see: Atheism and homosexuality

The Journal of Medical Ethics declared concerning the atheist and sadist Marquis de Sade: Plantilla:Cquote

Population control is based on pseudoscience and ill founded economic assumptions.[105] CBS News reported: "According to a mail-in survey of nearly 4,000 British doctors, those who were atheist or agnostic were almost twice as willing to take actions designed to hasten the end of life."[106]

In 2007 the Baptist Press reported: Plantilla:Cquote

Dr. William Lane Craig states the following concerning the comments of debater Dr. Kai Nielson who advocates atheism: Plantilla:Cquote

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Dr. Phil Fernandes states the following regarding atheism and moral relativism: Plantilla:Cquote

Evolutionist and weak atheist/agnostic Richard Dawkins stated in an interview: “What’s to prevent us from saying Hitler wasn’t right? I mean, that is a genuinely difficult question."[108] The interviewer wrote, regarding the Hitler comment, "I was stupefied. He had readily conceded that his own philosophical position did not offer a rational basis for moral judgments. His intellectual honesty was refreshing, if somewhat disturbing on this point."[109]

An essay by the Christian apologist Dr. James Spiegel examines the morality of some well known atheists. Dr. Speigel describes Bertrand Russell as a "misogynistic and a serial adulterer; a chronic seducer of women, especially very young women, even in his old age."[110] Spiegel refers to the atheist Karl Marx as a "fiercely anti-semitic; egocentric, slothful, and lecherous; exploitive of friends and unfaithful to his wife; sired an illegitimate son, whom he refused to acknowledge."[111] In addition, Spiegel refers to atheist Jean-Paul Sartre in the following manner: "in his old age Jean-Paul Sartre—notorious for his sexual escapades with female students, often procured by his colleague and lover Simone de Beauvoir."[112]

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Given that atheistic evolutionary thinking has engendered social darwinism and given that the proponents of atheism have no rational basis for morality in their ideology, the immoral views that atheists often hold and the low per capita giving of American atheists is not unpredictable.

Atheism, pederasty and NAMBLA Editar

see also: Atheism, pederasty and NAMBLA and Teenage homosexuality and Homosexuality and pederasty

Some of the well known atheist advocates of the North American Man-Boy Love Association (NAMBLA) are:

1. The atheist and homosexual David Thorstad was a founding member of the North American Man-Boy Love Association (NAMBLA).[113]

2. Harry Hay (1912 - 2002) was an liberal advocate of statutory rape and the widely acknowledged founder and progenitor of the activist homosexual agenda in the United States. Hay joined the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA) in 1934. [114] Harry Hay was an atheist.[115] He was a vociferous advocate of man/boy love. [116][117] In 1986, Hay marched in a gay parade wearing a shirt emblazoned with the words "NAMBLA walks with me."[118]

3. The writer Samuel R. Delaney is an atheist and a homosexual.[119][120] Delaney said he was a supporter of NAMBLA.[121]

See also: Richard Dawkins on child molestation and so called "gentle pedophiles" and John Maynard Keynes and pederasty

Atheism and bestiality Editar

See also: Atheism and bestiality

Bestiality is the act of engaging in sexual relations with an animal. The atheist philosopher Peter Singer defends the practice bestiality (as well as abortion, infanticide and euthanasia). Despite holding these views the liberal and pro-evolution academic establishment rewarded his views with a bioethics chair at Princeton University.[122][123]

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The Bible says that bestiality is a perversion and, under the Old Testament Jewish Law, punishable by death (Exodus 22:19, Leviticus 18:23, Leviticus 20:15 and Deuteronomy 27:21). The atheistic worldview does not lend itself to the establishment of morality within society and individuals (see: Atheism and morality and Atheism and deception).

The Christian apologist and author Michael Caputo writes: Plantilla:Cquote

British atheist Christopher Hitchens on bestiality Editar

See also: Atheism and bestiality and Bestiality and Britain and Christopher Hitchens on bestiality

At the end of the Christian apologist William Lane Craig vs. atheist Christopher Hitchens debate there was a audience question and answer period.VIDEO The first audience member to ask a question twice asked Christopher Hitchens to label bestiality as an immoral act, but he refused to do so.[125] Dr. Craig said the question posed to Hitchens was a good one and it helped illustrate that atheism cannot offer objective moral standards (see: Atheism and morality).[126]

Additional information on atheism and bestiality Editar

For additional information please see:

Atheism and rape Editar

See also: Atheism and rape and Atheism and women

Atheism offers no condemnation of rape and it provides no moral basis a society to attempt to prevent and deter rape. As noted earlier, Western atheists often assert there are no absolutes in morality and argue for moral relativism.

Commenting on Western atheism and rape, the Christian apologist Mariano Grinbank wrote: Plantilla:Cquote

Christian apologist Kyle Butt wrote: "In fact, in my debate with Dan Barker, Barker admitted that fact, and stated that under certain circumstances, rape would be a moral obligation (Butt and Barker, 2009)"[127] (see: Atheist Dan Barker Says Child Rape Could Be Moral).

TheAmazingAtheist is YouTube's most subscribed to YouTube channel produced by an atheist and as of August of 2012 it had over 300,000 subscribers. In 2012, he viciously told a rape victim "you deserved it" and told her that her rapist "deserved a medal". He also told her that she should try to relive the rape in her mind.[128]

Atheist Rebecca Watson and post Elevatorgate claim concerning harassment Editar

See also: Atheism and rape and Elevatorgate and Atheism and women and New Atheism

Post Elevatorgate controversy, at an atheist convention, Rebecca Watson claimed: Plantilla:Cquote

In addition, Watson declared: "It get regular rape threats. I get regular rape and murder threats".[129]

See also:

Atheist leaders and immoral relationships Editar

See also: Atheist leaders and immoral relationships and Internet atheism and polyamory

On June 14, 2012, an article entitled Atheist leaders and immoral relationships published by an advocate of the Question evolution! campaign declared: Plantilla:Cquote

The article Atheist leaders and immoral relationships further declares: Plantilla:Cquote

For more information please see: Atheist leaders and immoral relationships

Atheism and miraclesEditar

See main article: Atheism and Miracles

In relation to atheism and miracles, modern scholars are divided on the issue of whether or not David Hume was an atheist.[130] With that caveat in mind, Hume is well known for arguing that it is always more probable that the testimony of a miracle is false than that the miracle occurred.[131] Christian apologists William Lane Craig, Norman Geisler, C.S. Lewis, JP Holding, and others have shown the inadequacy and unreasonableness of Hume's position regarding miracles.[132]

Atheism and questions of originsEditar

See main article: Atheism and Evolution

Creationist scientists state that the first law of thermodynamics and the second law of thermodynamics argue against an eternal universe or a universe created by natural processes and argue for a universe created by God.[133][134][135] A majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the evolutionary position which employs methodological naturalism since World War II have had the worldview of atheism.[136][137] Creation scientists assert that the theory of evolution is an inadequate explanation for the variety of life forms on earth.[138] In addition, the current naturalistic explanations for the origin of life are inadequate. The theory of evolution has had a number of negative social effects.

Atheism and mental and physical healthEditar

See also: Atheism and health and Atheism and obesity

The is considerable amount of scientific evidence that suggest that theism is more conducive to mental and physical health than atheism and some of the more significant findings are given below [139] (For more information please see: Atheism and health).

Mayo Clinic, university studies, and other research Editar

The prestigious Mayo Clinic reported the following on December 11, 2001: Plantilla:Cquote

The Iona Institute reported: Plantilla:Cquote

In December of 2003, the University of Warwick reported: Plantilla:Cquote

Duke University has established the Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health.[140] The Duke University Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health is based in the Center for Aging at Duke and gives opportunities for scholarly trans-disciplinary conversation and the development of collaborative research projects.[141] In respect to the atheism and mental and physical health, the center offers many studies which suggest that theism is more beneficial than atheism.[142]

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The Christian group Teen Challenge reported: Plantilla:Cquote

Teen Challenge has a number of studies that indicate the high effectiveness of their drug treatment program compared to other programs.[143] Studies indicate that consumers of secular counseling psychology programs show hardly any benefit at all for alcoholism (see also: Ineffectiveness of secular counseling psychology).[144][145] The Apostle Paul in a letter to the church of Corinth indicated that Christians were able to overcome being drunkards through the power of Jesus Christ (I Corinthians 6:9-11). The website The Berean Call has a number of articles on various false claims and unbiblical notions that many practioners of counseling psychology promote.[146]

Currently, there is an ongoing debate on whether Friedrich Nietzsche's insanity was caused purely through disease or whether his atheistic/nihilistic philosophical outlook on life was the cause.[147] [148]

An article published on the Hong Kong Baptist University declares: Plantilla:Cquote

The Russian-born psychoanalyst and writer Lou Andreas-Salomé, who had a brief and tempestuous affair with Nietzsche, believed that Nietzsche's philosophy can be viewed as a reflection of his psychology and that his madness was the result of his philosophizing.[149] In addition, the French historian René Girard asserted that Nietzsche's philosophy led to his insanity.[150]

Atheism and suicideEditar

See also: Atheism and depression and Atheism and suicide and Atheism, gender and suicide and Atheism, marriage and suicide

Although there are recent studies relating to atheism being a causal factor for suicide for some individuals, an early proponent of atheism being a causal factor for suicide was the Reverend Dr. Robert Stuart MacArthur.[151][152][153] In 1894, the NY Times stated the following in relation to atheism and suicide: Plantilla:Cquote

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The same NY Times article quotes the Reverend Dr. MacArthur describing suicide in the following manner: Plantilla:Cquote

In 2004, the American Journal of Psychiatry reported the following: Plantilla:Cquote

The website Adherents.com reported the following in respect to atheism and suicide: Plantilla:Cquote

Australian online opinion writer and lecturer in ethics and philosophy at several Melbourne theological colleges, Bill Muehlenberg, in his essay The Unbearable Heaviness of Being (In a World Without God) states the following: Plantilla:Cquote

Atheism, uncharitableness and suicide Editar

See also: Atheism and depression and Atheism, uncharitableness and depression and Atheism and suicide

A number of studies have confirmed that there is an inverse relationship to doing volunteer work and depression.[154] The atheist population has a higher suicide rate than the general population. (see: Atheism and suicide).

Ex-Christians, self-esteem and suicide Editar

See also: Ex-Christians, self-esteem and suicide and Atheism and depression and Atheism and self-esteem and Richard Dawkins and Jesse Kilgore and Ex-atheists

There are preliminary studies indicating that individuals who reject Christianity in Western cultures have lower self-esteem than the Christian population.[155][156] There are studies indicating that lower self-esteem is associated with suicidality.[157][158]

Atheism, gender, marriage and suicide Editar

See also: Atheism and depression

Please see: Atheism, gender and suicide and Atheism, marriage and suicide

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Atheism and obesity Editar

See also: Atheism and obesity and Atheism and health

According to the Gallup Organization, "Very religious Americans are more likely to practice healthy behaviors than those who are moderately religious or nonreligious."[159] For more information please Atheism and obesity

Gallup declared concerning the study which measured the degree to which religiosity affects health practices: "Generalized linear model analysis was used to estimate marginal scores all five reported metrics after controlling for age (in years), gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, education (number of years), log of income, and region of the country... Results are based on telephone interviews conducted as part of the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index survey Jan. 2-July 28, 2010, with a random sample of 554,066 adults, aged 18 and older, living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, selected using random-digit-dial sampling."[160]

Please see:

Sports performance: Religious faith vs. atheism Editar

See also: Sports performance: Religious faith vs. atheism

The Sports Journal is a monthly refereed journal published by the United States Sports Academy. A journal article appeared in the Sports Journal entitled Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions. The article was submitted by Nathan T. Bell, Scott R. Johnson, and Jeffrey C. Petersen from Ball State University.[161]

An excerpt from the abstract of the journal article Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions declares: Plantilla:Cquote

Atheism and sports performance Editar

Besides lacking the aforementioned benefits that religion bestows on athletes, atheists have higher rates of depression and suicide than the religious (see: Atheism and mental health and Atheism and depression and Atheism and suicide). This suggests that atheism is a detriment to sports performance.

Atheism and women Editar

see also: Atheism and women and Atheism and rape and Elevatorgate and Prominent atheists whose wives believe in the existence of God

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Recent studies Editar

Surveys by country Editar

In November of 2010, Discover Magazine published survey results published by the World Values Survey which showed significant differences between the percentage of men and women who are atheists for various countries.[164]

United States surveys Editar

A 2008 study by Trinity College found that women are significantly more religious than men in America.[165] In 2007, the Pew Research Center found that American women were more religious than American men.[166]

Atheist PZ Myers commentary concerning atheist meetings Editar

In June of 2010, the atheist PZ Myers commented that atheist meetings tend to be significantly more attended by males.[167]

Large atheist group survey and atheist meetings Editar

In 2011, Beliefnetnews reported concerning the race and gender of American atheists: Plantilla:Cquote

2010 New York Times description of atheist meeting attendees Editar

In 2010, an atheists' meeting was organized in the United States concerning the future direction of the atheist movement and 370 people attended. The New York Times described the attendees as "The largely white and male crowd — imagine a Star Trek convention, but older...". [168]

Prominent general atheist websites appear to receive significantly less traffic from women Editar

The website run by the organization American Atheist has significantly less women trafficking their website according to Alexa and Quantcast.[169][170] The Internet Infidels website has significantly less woman trafficking their website according to Alexa and Quantcast.[171][172] The British Website New Humanist Magazine receives significantly less traffic from women according to Alexa and Quantcast.[173][174] Atheist Ireland also has significantly less women trafficking their website according to Alexa (there is no web traffic data from Quantcast).[175]

New Atheism websites appear to receive significantly less traffic from women Editar

The four most prominent writers of the New Atheist movement are Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris, Christopher Hitchens and Daniel Dennett. Like Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris has his own website. According to the website tracking firms Alexa and Quantcast women frequent the website of Samharris.org and richarddawkins.net significantly less than men.[176]

Summary Editar

The above data suggest that atheism in general and the New Atheism movement is significantly less appealing to women in the Western World.

Atheism and marriageability Editar

See also: Atheism and marriage and Prominent atheists whose wives believe in the existence of God

Studies indicate that atheists are a minority in the population. Studies also indicate that people tend to marry people with similar values or who resemble their parents or themselves.[177][178] In addition, the Bible teaches Christians not to marry a non-Christian (The Bible also teaches a believer to stay married to a non-believer if you are already married).[179] Also, interfaith marriages often have greater marital friction and interfaith marriages historically have had higher rates of divorce.[180] Therefore, it would not be surprising if atheist/theist marriages also have increased marital friction and higher rates of divorce since these two worldviews are so different.

Given that atheism appears to be significantly less appealing to women, atheists are a minority in the population and that people tend to marry people with similar values or who resemble their parents or themselves; this would suggest that male atheists may find it more difficult to find prospective female partners for marriage. And of course, militant atheism might make matters even more difficult.

Atheism and rates of marriage in the United States Editar

See also: Atheism and women

Christian apologist Michael Caputo wrote: Plantilla:Cquote

Vox Day declared that according to the 2001 American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) "more than half of all atheists and agnostics don’t get married."[181]

Obese atheists and marriageability Editar

See also: Atheism and obesity

As indicated earlier, atheists have significantly lower rates of marriage in the United States. According to the abstract for a paper presented at the 2004 annual meeting of the American Sociological Association: "Obese individuals have fewer dating opportunities, marry later and marry less desirable partners."[182] For more information please see: Atheism and obesity

Obese male atheists and marriageability Editar

See also: Atheism and obesity

Given that atheism appears to be significantly less appealing to women, obesity reduces one's marriageability, atheists are a minority in the population and that people tend to marry people with similar values or who resemble their parents or themselves as noted above; this would suggest that obese male atheists may find it more difficult to find prospective female partners for marriage. And of course, militant atheism might make matters even more difficult. For more information please see Atheism and obesity

New Atheism movement and contention between atheist men and women Editar

See also: Abrasiveness of Richard Dawkins and Atheist factions

Within the militant New Atheism movement, there appears to be a significant amount of contention between men and women with complaints from women that there is a significant amount of misogny within the atheist community and its leadership is too heavily populated with men.[183][184] This may partly explain why Western atheism is less appealing to Western women (see: Atheism appears to be significantly less appealing to women). In addition, the significant amount of contention between men and women may apply to Western atheism as a whole (see: Atheist factions).

Western atheism and race Editar

See also: Western atheism and race

As note earlier, an atheists' meeting was organized in the United States concerning the future direction of the atheist movement and 370 people attended. The conference, sponsored by the Council for Secular Humanism, drew members from all the major atheist organizations in the United States. The New York Times described the attendees as "The largely white and male crowd — imagine a Star Trek convention, but older..."[185] According to the Quantcast data, white males appear to be the group of individuals who are most receptive to Richard Dawkins' and atheist Sam Harris' message.[186][187] These findings,combined with the aforementioned data indicating that atheism is significantly less appealing to women, suggests that atheist movement in the Western world and New Atheism movement are significantly more appealing to white males.

Atheism and evolutionary racism Editar

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See also: Atheism and evolutionary racism and Social effects of the theory of evolution

Since World War II a majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the evolutionary position which employs methodological naturalism have been atheists.[189] The errant and ill founded writings of atheist Charles Darwin (see: religious views of Charles Darwin) [190], which became very influential in the late 19th century, provided a pretext for racism. Evolutionary racism refers to a racist philosophy based on Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory. It assumes that men have continually evolved, and thus some races are more evolved than others. It replaces Christian morality with the atheistic "survival of the fittest" ideology of Social Darwinism.

Charles Darwin wrote in his work The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex: Plantilla:Cquote

An example of evolutionary racism is when an evolutionary racist put Ota Benga on display at the Bronx Zoo in the monkey house.[191] In addition, evolutionary racism was directed at Michelle Obama.[192]

The atheist Ernst Haeckel was a virulent evolutionary racist. The agnostic and staunch evolutionist Stephen Gould admitted the following: Plantilla:Cquote

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As noted earlier, when asked in an interview, "If we do not acknowledge some sort of external [standard], what is to prevent us from saying that the Muslim [extremists] aren’t right?", Richard Dawkins replied, "What’s to prevent us from saying Hitler wasn’t right? I mean, that is a genuinely difficult question, but whatever [defines morality], it’s not the Bible. If it was, we’d be stoning people for breaking the Sabbath."[193]

The interviewer wrote in response, "I was stupefied. He had readily conceded that his own philosophical position did not offer a rational basis for moral judgments. His intellectual honesty was refreshing, if somewhat disturbing on this point."[193]

Evolutionary racism still exist today. For example, evolutionary racism was recently directed at Michelle Obama.[194] The historic taint of white evolutionary racism within the white atheist community no doubt has been a factor which has hindered the adoption of atheism in the Western World among racial minorities. Leading creation science organizations such as Creation Ministries International, Answers in Genesis and the Institute for Creation Research commonly point out the evolutionary racism that has existed within the evolutionary community.[195][196][197][198]

Thomas Sowell wrote: Plantilla:Cquote

The Christian abolitionist William Wilberforce was the father of Samuel Wilberforce, Bishop of Oxford who took part in the famous creation vs. evolution with evolutionist T. H. Huxley in 1860. In the United States, the black church has been a major force in advancing the cause of racial equality.

Creativity Movement Editar

See also: Creativity Movement

The Creativity Movement, formerly known as the World Church Of The Creator, is an atheistic white supremacist organization.[199][200][201] The movement has denounced Christianity,[200] as it purports to promote love for all of mankind.[202] It denounces religion for bringing horror into the world by dividing the white race.[200]

Atheism and deceptionEditar

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For more information please see: Atheism and deception and Irreligion and superstition

As alluded to earlier, prior to Charles Darwin publishing his evolutionist work On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or The Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life, Darwin wrote in his private notebooks that he was a materialist, which is a type of atheist.[203] Charles Darwin’s casual mentioning of a ‘creator’ in earlier editions of The Origin of Species appears to have been a merely a deceitful ploy to downplay the implications of his materialistic theory. [203]

German scientist Ernst Haeckel was a very influential proponent of the evolutionary position and Haeckel was an advocate of atheism.[204] Ernst Haeckel attempted to portray himself as an ethical proponent of atheism, however, history shows he was a deceitful individual.[205][204][206] [207][208] The March 9, 1907 edition of the NY Times refers to Ernst Haeckel as the "celebrated Darwinian and founder of the Association for the Propagation of Ethical Atheism."[204]

Noted evolutionist Stephen Gould wrote the following regarding Ernst Haeckel's work in a March 2000 issue of Natural History: Plantilla:Cquote

Stephen Gould continues by quoting Michael Richardson of the St. George’s Hospital Medical School in London, who stated: "I know of at least fifty recent biology texts which use the drawings uncritically".[209]

Intelligent design theorist Michael Behe exposed the fraudulent nature of Haeckel's embryos in a NY Times article.[207] It appears as if Stephen Gould was irritated that the fraud was exposed in manner that publicly embarrassed the evolutionary community - namely though a high profile NY Times article.[207]

In addition, many of the ideas that Haeckel supported had a number of negative social effects.

Modern proponents of atheism and deceptionEditar

As mentioned previously, a majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the evolutionary position which employs methodological naturalism since World War II have had the worldview of atheism.[210][211] The continued use of deceitfulness has continued by modern evolutionists. In recent times, evolutionists have tried to convince the public of the supposed validity of the evolutionary position by frequently using the term "overwhelming evidence" or similar terms in relation to the alleged existence of evidence that supports their position.[212] For example, Richard Dawkins, a prominent advocate of atheism and the evolutionary position, claimed in an interview with journalist Bill Moyers that there is "massive evidence" for the theory of evolution.[213] However, the scientific literature certainly contains material which illustrates the deceitfulness of stating there is "overwhelming evidence" to support the evolutionary position which is a commonly cited aspect of Western world atheism. For example, in January 2000 scientist Simon Conway Morris stated the following: Plantilla:Cquote

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Dr. Jonathan Sarfati states the following in relation to the diluted definition of the word "evolution": Plantilla:Cquote

Evolutionary paradigm - degree of public supportEditar

In 2010, the Gallup organization reported that 40% of Americans believe in young earth creationism.[214] In January 2006, the BBC reported concerning Britain: Plantilla:Cquote

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Irreligion and superstitionEditar

See also: Irreligion and superstition and Theory of Evolution, Liberalism, Atheism, and Irrationality and

In September of 2008, the Wall Street Journal reported: Plantilla:Cquote

Evolution, irreligion, extraterrestial life, UFOlogy and other pseudoscience Editar

For more information please see: Irreligion and superstition

The notions of extraterrestrial life and UFOlogy are fast growing pseudoscientific religions which are perpetuated and/or aided by the ideologies of evolutionists, atheists, liberals and other promoters of quackery.[216][217][218] However, the ideologies of extraterrestrial life, UFOlogy, exobiology, evolution and abiogenesis are anti-biblical ideas which are not supported by sound science.[219][220]

The liberal and agnostic Carl Sagan, an avid smoker of marijuana who claimed that marijuana gave him scientific insights, was a prominent peddler of extraterrestial life, evolution and other pseudoscientific nonsense. Sagan's agnosticism and avid marijuana smoking no doubt helped inspire Sagan's pseudoscientific fantasy that evolution was a "fact".[221][222]

No doubt pseudoscientific and superstitious thinking in many cases is partly due to a lack of self-discipline as rigorous scientific and logical thinking requires disciplined thought[223]

Irreligious/atheistic France and the Soviet Union and UFOlogy Editar

See also: Irreligion and superstition and Christianity and UFOs

On January 4, 2003, it was reported in the newspaper the Toledo Blade concerning the irreligious countries of the former Soviet Union and France that "in countries with a high degree of occult activity such as Russia during the Soviet era, France, and certain parts of Brazil also had high percentages of UFO encounters. During Russia's Soviet period when every expression of religion except occult activity had been outlawed, he said, “Russians were seeing UFOs at five to eight times the rate Americans were."[224]

Christian apologists who reject naturalistic explanations of life such as the theory of evolution argue that difficult to explain UFOs are spiritual in nature and not amenable to naturalistic explanation.[225]

Library of Congress researcher's findings on UFOs Editar

See also: Atheism and satanic deception

Lynn Cato, senior bibliographer for the library of Congress, created a 1600 entry on UFO bibliography for the United States Air Force Office of Scientific Research. After a two year investigation, in which she reviewed thousands of documents, Catoe stated: Plantilla:Cquote

Prominent UFO researcher John Keel concurred. After surveying the literature on demonology Keel declared:[226]Plantilla:Cquote

Intellectuals increasingly rejecting atheistic ideology Editar

According to Munich theologian Wolfhart Pannenberg "Atheism as a theoretical position is in decline worldwide."[227] Given that the evolutionary position is a often cited component of the ideology of atheism in the Western world, the gradual loss of public support of the evolutionary position is one of the many factors which are eroding the ideology of atheism. Oxford scholar Alister McGrath cites a number of additional factors in regards to the decline of atheism as an intellectual position.[228] [229]

Given the many factors which are eroding atheistic ideology McGrath states: Plantilla:Cquote

Christian websites with a large focus on the topic of atheism Editar

See also: Atheism and the internet

Four of the more notable Christian apologetics which have a large focus on the topic of atheism are: True Free Thinker, the Creation Ministries International resources on atheism, the Fixed Point Foundation website, and Atheism Analyzed.

Liberal media - apostles of atheism Editar

The Media Research Center released a study in 2008 reporting pro-atheism bias by major press outlets in the United States.[230] The study is not surprising given the liberal bias that commonly exists in the major media outlets.

Richard Dawkins, pseudoscience, and other errors Editar

For more information please see: Richard Dawkins and pseudoscience and Richard Dawkins, atheist atrocities, and historical revisionism

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Richard Dawkins is an agnostic ( who argues for weak atheism, see: Richard Dawkins' worldview), biologist, evolutionist and leftist/liberal. Most of Richard Dawkins' popular books have been on the topic of evolutionary biology. He is an ardent opponent of religion, which he dismisses as mere superstition.[233] However, Dawkins has offered no effective rebuttal to studies which show that the irreligious are more likely to be superstitious than evangelical Christians.[234] Moreover, in terms of the theism vs. atheism issue, Dawkins has shown himself to be rather ignorant in matters of theology and philosophy. For example, atheist philosopher Dr. Michael Ruse declared concerning Dawkins' book The God Delusion: "The God Delusion makes me embarrassed to be an atheist."[235]

Richard Dawkins and debates Editar

Richard Dawkins has established a reputation for avoiding debates with his strongest opponents. In the case of his debate with Rabbi Shmuley Boteach concerning the existence of God, Dawkins lost the debate according to the college student poll of the debate which determined how many students changed their minds.[236] Dawkins later tried to claim the debate never took place despite the fact that the Dawkins vs. Boteach debate was videotaped (see: Richard Dawkins and Rabbi Shmuley Boteach).

Richard Dawkins and pseudoscience Editar

see also: Richard Dawkins and pseudoscience

Within the evolutionary science community and the creation science community, Richard Dawkins has faced charges of engaging in pseudoscience and also has faced charges of committing elementary errors.[237][238]

Causes of atheism Editar

See main article: Causes of atheism and Resources for leaving atheism and becoming a Christian

There are a number of reasonable explanations for atheism:

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1. Moral depravity: The history of the atheist community and various studies regarding the atheist community point to moral depravity being a causal factor for atheism.[239] In addition, there is the historical matter of deceit being used in a major way to propagate atheism from the time of Charles Darwin onward. Francis Thompson wrote: "Maybe the atheist cannot find God for the same reason a thief cannot find a policeman." (see also: Atheism and morality ). The Bible asserts that "The fool has said in his heart, 'There is no God.' They are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none that doeth good." (Psalms 14:1 (KJV)). The biblical fool is said to be lacking in sound judgment and the biblical fool is also associated with moral depravity. For example, the biblical book of Proverbs states: "A wise man is cautious and turns away from evil, But a fool is arrogant and careless. A quick-tempered man acts foolishly, And a man of evil devices is hated. The naive inherit foolishness, But the sensible are crowned with knowledge."(Proverbs 14:16-18 (NASB)). The book of Proverbs also has strong words regarding the depravity of biblical fools: "The desire accomplished is sweet to the soul: but [it is] abomination to fools to depart from evil." (Proverbs 13:9 (KJV)). Regarding the deceitfulness of fools Proverbs states: "The wisdom of the sensible is to understand his way, But the foolishness of fools is deceit." (Proverbs 14:8 (KJV)). Noted Bible commentator and clergyman Matthew Henry wrote regarding atheism: "A man that is endued with the powers of reason, by which he is capable of knowing, serving, glorifying, and enjoying his Maker, and yet lives without God in the world, is certainly the most despicable and the most miserable animal under the sun."[240]

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2. Hatred towards God. Angry, bitter and juvenile attacks on Christianity and Christians are due to hatred towards Jesus Christ and the Bible.[241][242]

3. Atheistic upbringing. However, according to recent research by the Pew Forum Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, in the United States, a majority of those surveyed who were raised in atheist or agnostic households, or where there was no specific religious attachment, later chose to join a religious faith.[243][244] In addition, as noted earlier, Christianity is experiencing rapid growth in atheistic communist China and has experienced rapid growth in former communist countries. [245][246][247]

4. Rebellion: Atheism stems from a deliberate choice to ignore the reality of God's existence[248] Dinesh D'Souza declared: "Look at Satan's reason for rebelling against God. It's not that he doesn't recognize that God is greater than he is. He does. It's just that he doesn't want to play by anybody else's rules. This idea that it is better to reign in hell than to serve in heaven is Satan's motto, and it turns out that this is also the motto of contemporary atheists such as Christopher Hitchens." [249]

5. Hedonism.[250] The Apostle Paul wrote that in the end times, men would be lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God (2 Timothy 3:1-4). See: Atheism and hedonism

6. Naiveté/Gullibility: Many atheists have embraced a number of far fetched, unworkable, and errant notions and ideologies such as communism, abiogenesis, and evolution despite abundant evidence of their falsity.

7. Irrational thinking: As noted earlier, a comprehensive study by Baylor University found that the irreligious and the members of more liberal Protestant denominations, tend to be much more likely to believe in the paranormal and in pseudoscience than evangelical Christians.[251] Also, as noted above, a 1980 study published in the magazine Skeptical Inquirer found irreligious college students to be by far the most likely to embrace paranormal beliefs, while born again Christian college students were found to be the least likely.[252]

8. Superficiality: Noted ex-atheist and psychologist Dr. Paul Vitz has stated that he had superficial reasons for becoming an atheist such as the desire to be accepted by his Stanford University professors who were united in disbelief regarding God.[253]

9. Error: Some argue that atheism partly stems from a failure to fairly and judiciously consider the facts[254]

10. State churches: Rates of atheism are much higher in countries with a state sanctioned religion (such as many European countries), and lower in states without a sanctioned religion (such as the United States). Some argue this is because state churches become bloated, corrupt, and/or out of touch with the religious intuitions of the population, while churches independent of the state are leaner and more adaptable. It is important to distinguish "state-sanctioned churches," where participation is voluntary, from "state-mandated churches" (such as Saudi Arabia) with much lower atheism rates because publicly admitted atheism is punishable by death.[255]

11. Self-deception[256]

12. Satanic deception [257] (see also: Atheism and satanic deception )

13. Poor relationship with father: Some argue that a troubled/non-existent relationship with a father may influence one towards holding the position of atheism.[258] Dr. Paul Vitz wrote a book entitled Faith of the Fatherless in which he points out that after studying the lives of more than a dozen leading atheists he found that a large majority of them had a father who was present but weak, present but abusive, or absent.[253][259] Dr. Vitz also examined the lives of prominent theists who were contemporaneous to their atheist counterparts and from the same culture and in every instance these prominent theists had a good relationship with his father.[253] Dr. Vitz has also stated other common factors he observed in the leading atheists he profiled: they were all intelligent and arrogant.[253]

14. Division in religion: According to Francis Bacon, atheism is caused by "divisions in religion, if they be many; for any one main division addeth zeal to both sides, but many divisions introduce atheism."[260]

15. Learned times, peace, and prosperity: Francis Bacon argued that atheism was partly caused by:"Learned times, specially with peace and prosperity; for troubles and adversities do more bow men’s minds to religion."[260]

In addition, Jewish columnist Dennis Prager has stated that a causal factor of atheism is the "secular indoctrination of a generation."[261] Prager stated that "From elementary school through graduate school, only one way of looking at the world – the secular – is presented. The typical individual in the Western world receives as secular an indoctrination as the typical European received a religious one in the Middle Ages." [262] In addition, in communist countries (such as the former Soviet Union) atheistic indoctrination occurred in the educational system through such venues as schools, atheist museums, and clubs.[263][264] Atheists and secularists rarely point out that universities such as Harvard, Princeton, Oxford, Cambridge, and many others were founded by Christians.[265][266]

See also: Does atheism thrive on economic prosperity and religion prosper when people are desperate and ignorant?

16. Negative experiences with theists

17. Scientism: Science has in many ways become a new god.[267]

Atheism and the existence of evilEditar

See also: Atheism and the Problem of Evil and Theodicy and Atheism and satanic deception and Atheism and hell

Those who advocate atheism commonly state that the existence of evil is a problem for theism which holds to a good and powerful God.[268] Theodicy is the branch of study in theology and philosophy that defends the goodness of God despite the existence of evil.[269] In traditional Christianity and Judaism the book of Job is used to explain the existence of evil.[270] In recent times Christian apologists often cite Alvin Plantinga's free will defense when it comes to the subject of the existence of evil.[271][272] The work of St. Augustine is also cited in respect to theodicy.[273] Dr. Ron Rhodes of Reasoning from the Scriptures Ministry states regarding this issue regarding the existence of evil in relation to atheism: Plantilla:Cquote

Atheism and the foundation of modern scienceEditar

See also: Christianity and science

The birth of modern science occurred in Christianized Europe.[274] Sociologist Rodney Stark investigated the individuals who made the most significant scientific contributions between 1543 and 1680 A.D., the time of the Scientific Revolution. In Stark's list of 52 top scientific contributors,[275] only one (Edmund Halley) was a skeptic and another (Paracelsus) was a pantheist. The other 50 were Christians, 30 of whom could be characterized as being devout Christians.[275] Sir Francis Bacon, sometimes referred to as "the Father of Modern Science", wrote in his essay entitled Of Atheism the following: "I had rather believe all the fables in the Legend, and the Talmud, and the Alcoran, than that this universal frame is without a mind."[276]

Bertrand Russell and ChristianityEditar

The evidence points to Bertrand Russell being a "weak atheist" or an agnostic (Bertrand Russell wrote an essay entitled Am I An Atheist Or An Agnostic?).[277] In 1927, Bertrand Russell wrote an irrational essay entitled "Why I am not a Christian" which was based on a lecture Russell gave the same year.[278][279] Below are some works by Christian apologists which show the inconsistencies and logical fallacies of Bertrand Russell's essay:

It is also noteworthy that Russell was widely infamous for his immoral behavior and public promotion of promiscuity and sexual sin.

Atheism and debateEditar

See also: Atheism debates and Atheism and cowardice and Atheist factions

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Historically speaking, atheism has fared very poorly in debates. In addition, due to prominent atheists dodging debates, the cowardice associated with atheism has become so obvious that it is making newspaper headlines (For more information please see: Atheism and cowardice).[280] [281] For example, as noted earlier, Richard Dawkins has established a reputation of avoiding his strongest debate opponents. On May 14, 2011, the British newspaper The Daily Telegraph published a news story entitled Richard Dawkins accused of cowardice for refusing to debate existence of God.[282] In The Daily Telegraph article Dr. Daniel Came, a a member of the Faculty of Philosophy at Oxford University was quoted as writing to fellow atheist Richard Dawkins concerning his refusal to debate Dr. William Lane Craig, "The absence of a debate with the foremost apologist for Christian theism is a glaring omission on your CV and is of course apt to be interpreted as cowardice on your part."[283] Also, atheists tend to dodge creation vs. evolution debates.

For more information see: Atheism debates and Atheism and cowardice

Creation vs. evolution debates Editar

See also: Creation scientists tend to win the creation vs. evolution debates

The worldwide atheist community was challenged to a debate by Creation Ministries International as prominent atheists were speaking at a 2010 global atheist convention in Australia.[284] Richard Dawkins, PZ Myers and other prominent atheists refused to debate Creation Ministries International.[285] Generally speaking, creation scientists tend to win the creation vs. evolution debates (see: Creation scientists tend to win the creation vs. evolution debates.

Doug Jesseph Editar

In October of 1997, atheist Jeffery Jay Lowder, a founder of Internet Infidels, stated that he believed that in regards to atheism "the most impressive debater to date" was Douglas Jesseph.[286] Yet Douglas Jesseph claimed in a debate with William Lane Craig in 1996 that the origin of life had a detailed atheistic explanation(s).[287] In 1996, John Horgan wrote the following regarding what the highly respected origin of life researcher Stanley Miller believed to the case regarding naturalistic explanations of the origin of life: "Miller seemed unimpressed with any of the current proposals on the origin of life, referring to them as “nonsense” or “paper chemistry.”"[288] In addition, in 1996, John Horgan wrote the following in Scientific American: "The origin of life is a science writer's dream. It abounds with exotic scientists and exotic theories, which are never entirely abandoned or accepted, but merely go in and out of fashion."[289]

Additional information on atheism and debate Editar

See:

Notable atheists who became ex-atheists Editar

See: Ex-atheists

Views on atheists Editar

Concerning various views on atheists, research in the American Sociological Review finds that among several groups listed, those who hold the position of atheism are the group that Americans relate least to in terms of their vision of American society and are the group most likely to be mentioned as one that Americans would not want to have marry into their family.[290] Dr. Sam Harris, a founder of the New Atheism movement, is well aware of the stigma surrounding atheism and has advocated that atheists no longer call themselves atheists.[291] In fact, Dr. Harris has said concerning the label of atheist, "It's right next to child molester as a designation."[292]

Position: This group does not at all agree with
my vision of American society:
I would disapprove if my child wanted
to marry a member of this group:
Atheist 39.6% 47.6%
Muslim 26.3% 33.5%
Homosexual 22.6% NA
Conservative Christian 13.5% 6.9%
Recent Immigrant 12.5% Not Asked
Hispanic 7.6% 18.5%
Jew 7.4% 11.8%
Asian American 7.0% 18.5%
African American 4.6% 27.2%
White American 2.2% 2.3%

New AtheismEditar

See also: New Atheism and Atheist factions and Brights Movement and Militant atheism

Dissent Magazine stated the following about the "New Atheism": Plantilla:Cquote

Dr. Albert Mohler Jr. describes some of the key attributes of the "New Atheism": Plantilla:Cquote

Impact of the New Atheism Editar

See also: Impact of the New Atheism

The New Atheism has not had much of an impact in terms of gaining new adherents to atheism. In a March 10, 2008 USA Today article Stephen Prothero indicated that the New Atheism movement was not effective in adding new adherents to atheism and he cited statistics from a large Pew Research Center study which indicated that the number of atheists in the United States was merely 1.6% of respondents.[293]

Atheism and the BibleEditar

See also: Atheism and the Bible and Atheism and hell

Biblical skeptics have been disputing the reliability of the Bible for centuries. Christian apologist JP Holding rightly states that Bible exegesis and Bible exposition is a multi-disciplinary pursuit, and often critics of the Bible have not done a fraction of the due diligence required to make an allegation regarding the Bible.[294]

Christian theologian and apologist Bernard Ramm wrote the following regarding Biblical skeptics, in his often cited work Protestant Christian Evidences: Plantilla:Cquote

Christian apologists have responded to the various biblical errancy and claims of contradictions by atheists with an array of well known websites. Some popular ones include: Tektonics - Apologetics Encyclopedia, A Christian Think Tank, Apologetics Press - Alleged Discrepancies, Inerrancy.org, and many more.

In addition, many Christian scientists and apologists such as the Christian scientists and apologists at Creation Ministries International and CreationWiki assert that the Bible, although not written as a science text book, shows an understanding of science beyond what was believed to exist during the time the various Bible books were composed.[295][296]

Atheism in academiaEditar

In 2001 atheist and philosopher Quentin Smith stated the following in respect to atheism: Plantilla:Cquote In 2004, Professor Alister McGrath, professor of historical theology at Wycliffe Hall, Oxford University declared, "The golden age of atheism is over."[297]

American Atheists Editar

See also: American atheism

American Atheists is an American atheists group founded by Madalyn Murray O'Hair that has a history of intellectual incompetence. Below are some noteworthy examples.

For more information please see:

French Revolution and atheismEditar

For a related article please see: History of Atheism

The University of Cambridge reports the following historical relationship between atheism and the French Revolution: Plantilla:Cquote

Atheist population as a percentage of various countries' populationsEditar

See main article: Atheist Population

Specific research on the worldwide atheist population conducted in 2006 suggests that the true proportion of atheists is 4% in the United States, 17% in Great Britain and 32% in France. A survey published in the 2005 Encyclopedia Britannica dcclared that 2.3% of the world's population consists of individuals who profess "atheism, skepticism, disbelief, or irreligion, including the militantly antireligious." Concerning the 2.3% figure just mentioned, the 2005 survey cited by Encyclopedia Britannica survey did not include Buddhist in regards to the 2.3% figure and Buddhism can be theistic or atheistic.[298]

Ipsos, a major global market research company, published a report on report on religious belief/skepticism from a worlwide perspective and the report provides various statistics gained from survey results.

Other well known proponents of atheism Editar

Prominent holders of the position of atheism and atheist schools of thought have been or include:

Atheism and intelligence Editar

See: Atheism and intelligence

Atheism quotesEditar

See articles: Atheism Quotes and Humorous quotes about atheism and evolution

Resources for leaving atheism and becoming a Christian Editar

see also: Resources for leaving atheism and becoming a Christian

Below are some resources for leaving atheism and becoming a Christian:

Watch an online Christian church service Editar

Tips on choosing a Christian church Editar

Spiritual growth Editar

See alsoEditar

Online videos concerning atheism and related topicsEditar

External linksEditar

see also: Atheism website resources

General articles on atheism:

Decline of global atheism:

Christendom prevailing against atheism:

Atheism and despair:

Christian outreach to atheists on YouTube:

Unreasonableness of atheism:

Atheism and uncharitableness:

Atheism is a religion:

Comedy/satire concerning atheism

Atheism and intelligence:

Atheism and cowardice:

Atheism and science:

Decline of atheism:

Various issues concerning atheism:

Atheism and history

Atheism and some recent events

Sermons

Miscellaneous

Recommended reading Editar

General Works On Atheism:

Book on the New Atheism:

  • R. Albert Mohler Jr., (2008), Atheism Remix: A Christian Confronts the New Atheists, Crossway, ISBN 9781433504976

Atheism and history:

  • Dimitry Pospielovsky, (December, 1987), A History of Marxist-Leninist Atheism and Soviet Antireligious Policies, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0312381328
  • Dimitry Pospielovsky, (November, 1987), Soviet Antireligious Campaigns and Persecutions (History of Soviet Atheism in Theory and Practice and the Believers, Vol 2), Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0312009054
  • Dimitry Pospielovsky, (August, 1988), Soviet Studies on the Church and the Believer's Response to Atheism: A History of Soviet Atheism in Theory and Practice and the Believers, Vol 3, Palgrave Macmillan, hardcover: ISBN 0312012918, paperback edition: ISBN 0312012926


Plantilla:Nb Atheism

Notes Editar

Plantilla:Reflist



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